This presentation provides a brief overview on the historical use and known medicinal actions of turmeric root, ginger root, hops flowers and Indian frankincense. It describes key active constituents including curcuminoids, gingerols, xanthohumol, and boswellic acids. Several figures delve into the biologic mechanisms of action of these constituents as they relate to local and systemic inflammation and pain. Mechanisms discussed include the upstream and downstream modulation of enzymes, prostaglandins, gene expression regulators, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and chemokines. Also described is clinical research demonstrating the increased bioavailability of enhanced forms of curcumin and xanthohumol.

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