Menopausal transition represents a critical period in women’s lives that marks an increase in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Traditional CVD risk factors, such as reduced glucose tolerance, increased blood pressure and endothelial dysfunction, tend to become very present during menopausal transition and post-menopausal years which can partly explain the augmentation in CVD risk among women. The natural decline in oestrogen levels during menopause has been associated with the increase in CVD risk among post-menopausal women. Similarly, VMS are postulated to originate from changes in brain neurotransmitters and instability in the hypothalamic thermoregulatory center brought about by decline in oestrogen level.

This case study shows the observational cohort studies or randomised intervention studies were eligible for inclusion if they followed participants prospectively (at least 1 year of follow-up), and reported relevant estimates on the association of any vasomotor symptoms, or other menopausal symptoms.

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