During periods of over-nutrition, excess energy is stored in white adipose tissue (WAT); continuing expansion of WAT may lead to obesity. Obesity alters the cellular physiology of adipocytes, the cells of WAT. In the context of obesity, adipocytes secrete elevated levels of free fatty acids and adipokines, but decreased levels of adiponectin. These pathophysiologic changes have many effects. Elevated free fatty acids contribute to insulin resistance, oxidative stress, inflammation, and impaired arterial flow regulation

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